What points should be paid attention to during Oracle database patrol? (some personal opinions)

Posted by Tristan Wells on Sat, 08 Jan 2022 06:16:35 +0100


🌲 preface 🌲

If you are given a new Oracle stand-alone database environment, what do you need to pay attention to as a DBA? This article only discusses Linux hosts~

πŸ“’ First of all, it is not a standard answer, but some personal opinions. Welcome πŸ‘πŸ» We need to improve~

First, of course, confirm whether it is a stand-alone or cluster database! This article mainly explains stand-alone database.

I ⭐ Host level ⭐ ️

1, πŸ“š Host version and Oracle version

Host version:

cat /etc/system-release
cat /etc/redhat-release

Oracle version and patch version:

sqlplus -version
opatch lspatches

2, πŸ’» Host hardware resources

Including CPU load, physical memory and disk usage.

CPU load and memory:

free -m

⚠️ Pay attention to whether the CPU load and physical memory usage of the host are abnormal, and whether Swap is used too much.

Disk usage:

fdisk -l
df -Th

⚠️ Obviously, we need to pay attention to the disk usage and whether the utilization rate is too high.

3, πŸ“’ Schedule task crontab

Some backup strategies or archive deletion strategies will be arranged for general planning tasks. We can view them through crontab:

crontab -l

4, 🌿 Check the Hosts file and network configuration

cat /etc/hosts
ip addr
nmcli connection show

5, πŸ„ Check the system parameter file

cat /etc/sysctl.conf

⚠️ Pay attention to whether unconventional parameters are set.

6, 🌻 Check RC Local file

rc. The local file is used to configure the startup self startup script. Generally, it will be set to close the transparent large page or the startup self startup of Oracle database.

cat /etc/rc.local

7, 🍁 Environment variable configuration

View the environment variable configuration to get more familiar with the environment.

cat ~/.bash_profile
cat /home/oracle/.bash_profile

8, 🌡 Check system service

systemctl status firewalld.service
cat /proc/cmdline
cat /etc/sysconfig/network

II πŸ’« Database level πŸ’«

1, πŸ” View database instances and listen

ps -ef|grep smon
su - oracle
lsnrctl status

2, πŸ– Database tablespace usage

sqlplus / as sysdba
select tbs_used_info.tablespace_name,
       tbs_used_info.used_of_max || '%' used_of_max_pct
  from (select a.tablespace_name,
               round(a.bytes_alloc / 1024 / 1024) alloc_mb,
               round((a.bytes_alloc - nvl(b.bytes_free,
                                          0)) / 1024 / 1024) used_mb,
               round((a.bytes_alloc - nvl(b.bytes_free,
                                          0)) * 100 / a.maxbytes) used_of_max,
               round((a.maxbytes - a.bytes_alloc + nvl(b.bytes_free,
                                                       0)) / 1048576) free_of_max_mb,
               round(a.maxbytes / 1048576) max_mb
          from (select f.tablespace_name,
                       sum(f.bytes) bytes_alloc,
                                  f.bytes)) maxbytes
                  from dba_data_files f
                 group by tablespace_name) a,
               (select f.tablespace_name,
                       sum(f.bytes) bytes_free
                  from dba_free_space f
                 group by tablespace_name) b
         where a.tablespace_name = b.tablespace_name(+)) tbs_used_info
 order by tbs_used_info.used_of_max desc;

3, 🍒 Check RMAN backup

rman target /
list backup;

sqlplus / as sysdba
col status for a10
col input_type for a20

select input_type,
               'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss'),
               'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss'),
  from v$rman_backup_job_details
 where start_time > date '2021-07-01'
 order by 3 desc;

4, 🍑 Check control file redundancy

Check the number and location of control files and whether they are in multiple redundancy status.

sqlplus / as sysdba
show parameter control_files
select name from v$controlfile;

5, 🍭 Check parameter file

View the database parameter file and check whether the parameters are used normally.

sqlplus / as sysdba
show parameter spfile
create pfile='/home/oracle/pfile.ora' from spfile;

strings /home/oracle/pfile.ora

6, 🍬 Are archiving and flashback enabled

sqlplus / as sysdba
archive log list
select open_mode,log_mode,flashback_on,force_logging from v$database;

7, πŸ— Check the online log and switching frequency

View online log size:

set line222
col member for a100
select f.group#,f.member,l.sequence#,l.bytes/1024/1024,l.archived,l.status,l.first_time 
from v$logfile f,v$log l 
where f.group# = l.group# 
order by f.group#,f.member;

View online log switching frequency:

col day for a30
  SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH:MI:SS'),1,5)  DAY,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'00',1,0)) H00,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'01',1,0)) H01,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'02',1,0)) H02,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'03',1,0)) H03,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'04',1,0)) H04,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'05',1,0)) H05,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'06',1,0)) H06,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'07',1,0)) H07,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'08',1,0)) H08,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'09',1,0)) H09,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'10',1,0)) H10,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'11',1,0)) H11,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'12',1,0)) H12,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'13',1,0)) H13,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'14',1,0)) H14,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'15',1,0)) H15,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'16',1,0)) H16,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'17',1,0)) H17,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'18',1,0)) H18,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'19',1,0)) H19,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'20',1,0)) H20,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'21',1,0)) H21,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'22',1,0)) H22,
  SUM(DECODE(SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH24:MI:SS'),10,2),'23',1,0)) H23,
  COUNT(*)                                                                      TOTAL
  v$log_history  a where SYSDATE - first_time < 35
GROUP BY SUBSTR(TO_CHAR(first_time, 'MM/DD/RR HH:MI:SS'),1,5) order by 1;

8, πŸ• View database character set

select * from nls_database_parameters;

9, 🍯 Check for invalid objects

SELECT owner,object_name,object_type,status
FROM dba_objects
WHERE status <> 'VALID'
ORDER BY owner,object_name;

10, πŸ‹ Check partition table object

set line222
col high_value for a100
select t2.TABLE_OWNER,t1.table_name, t1.max_partition_name, t2.high_value
  from (select table_name, max(partition_name) as max_partition_name
          from dba_tab_partitions
         group by table_name) t1,
       (select TABLE_OWNER,table_name, partition_name, high_value
          from dba_tab_partitions
         where tablespace_name not in ('SYSAUX', 'SYSTEM')) t2
 where t1.table_name = t2.table_name
   and t1.max_partition_name = t2.partition_name
   order by 1,2;

Pay attention to the maximum expansion of the partition. It is recommended to expand the partition in advance to avoid splitting.

III ❄️ Reporting level ❄️

Through the awr, ash, awrsqrpt and other reports provided by Oracle, you can clearly understand the current database situation.

1, πŸ‰ awr Report

AWR contains the detailed information collection of database operation, which is often used to analyze and collect performance problems.

sqlplus / as sysdba @?/rdbms/admin/awrrpt.sql

The above command can generate AWR report, and you need to fill in the report type, grab time and how to use it. You can also check your official account of the AWR Hawkeye free video tutorial.

2, 🍊 ash Report

ash can capture more detailed information than AWR report, which can be accurate to minutes, and it is also commonly used.

sqlplus / as sysdba @?/rdbms/admin/ashrpt.sql

The above is the generation method, optional time period, and the default is to obtain the report from the current time to 15 minutes ago.

3, πŸ’ awrsqrpt Report

It is used to analyze the report when a single SQL has performance problems. You need to know the SQL_ID.

sqlplus / as sysdba @?/rdbms/admin/awrsqrpt.sql

You need to fill in the time period and sql_id to get the relevant sql report.

4, πŸ‘ sqltrpt Report

It is usually used together with awrsqrpt report to obtain sql optimization suggestions provided by Oracle. Generally speaking, it is recommended to create more indexes and profile s, which is suitable for novices to optimize sql.

sqlplus / as sysdba @?/rdbms/admin/sqltrpt.sql

Only SQL is required_ ID is enough.

5, 🍍 addmrpt Report

addmrpt is a report generated by oracle through automatic diagnosis of awr reports.

sqlplus / as sysdba @?/rdbms/admin/addmrpt.sql

For reference only, real help is not of great significance. The process requires a time period to be entered.

6, 🌽 Health examination report

This kind of health examination report is generally a report generated by individual script execution. The examination results usually contain the above required information according to individual definition. Of course, the Oracle official also provides the report generation method of the complete database. There is no too much introduction here. If you need it, you can contact me for it.

⚑ Write at the end ⚑ ️

Through the above inspections, I believe you have a general understanding of the database system you are new to. Next, you just need to make a slow and in-depth analysis, and then formulate a set of operation and maintenance specifications in line with the actual situation.