Build Prometheus+Grafana+Alertmanager

Posted by PHP Man on Sat, 19 Feb 2022 14:02:56 +0100

1. Principles and Features (Functions)

1. Main features

  • Multidimensional data model (Time series consists of metric name and labels for k/v)
  • Flexible Query Language ( PromQL)
  • Distributed storage without dependencies; Single-node servers are autonomous
  • Use http protocol, pull mode to pull data, easy to understand
  • Monitoring objectives, which can be service discovery and static configuration
  • Supports a variety of statistical models and interface displays. It can be combined with Grafana.

2. Architecture schematic

The picture comes from: Overview | Prometheus

2. Install Prometheus

1. Install the main components as follows:

  • Prometheus Server
  • The monitored object exporter component
  • Data visualization tool Grafana
  • Data Upload Gateway push gateway
  • Alertmanager

2. Install prometheus server

Official download address: Download | Prometheus

Due to the instability of the official address, not pursuing the latest version can use the disk address I downloaded: Please enter extraction code for Baidu netdisk 8888

#1. Send installation packages to host via software
[root@module 1-prometheus]# tar -xf prometheus-2.33.3.linux-amd64.tar.gz  #Unzip Package
[root@module 1-prometheus]# mv prometheus-2.33.3.linux-amd64/ /usr/local/prometheus #Move the package to the directory where the software is installed and rename it
[root@module 1-prometheus]# cd /usr/local/prometheus/  #Enter program directory
[root@module prometheus]# ./prometheus --version       #View Version
prometheus, version 2.33.3 (branch: HEAD, revision: 56e14463bccfbb6a8facfb663fed5e0ca9f8b387)
  build user:       root@4ee34e4f7340
  build date:       20220211-20:48:21
  go version:       go1.17.7
  platform:         linux/amd64
[root@module prometheus]# sed -i '$s/"localhost:/"' prometheus.yml #Modify profile, IP is local address
[root@module prometheus]# ./promtool check config ./prometheus.yml  #Check profile syntax
Checking ./prometheus.yml  
 SUCCESS: ./prometheus.yml is valid prometheus config file syntax

#2. Write a service file
[root@module prometheus]# vim /usr/lib/systemd/system/prometheus.service #Write a service file for later use
Description=Prometheus Monitoring System  #Descriptive Information                      #After which service to start

ExecStart=/usr/local/prometheus/prometheus \         #The name of the process that needs to be started to execute systemctl start
   --config.file=/usr/local/prometheus/prometheus.yml \  #configuration file
   --storage.tsdb.path=/usr/local/prometheus/data/ \     #Data Storage Path
   --web.enable-admin-api \     #Turn on anonymous login                    
   --web.enable-lifecycle       #Turn on hot loading

[root@module prometheus]# systemctl daemon-reload     #Reload Configuration
[root@module prometheus]# systemctl enable prometheus.service --now  #Startup Program Start-Up
[root@module prometheus]# ss -tunlp |grep 9090        #Check if the service is started, default port is 9090

Note: If the environment is a virtual machine, to ensure time synchronization, configure NTP to access the Internet through a real machine

[root@module prometheus]# timedatectl status   #Make sure the equipment is in Shanghai time zone
      Local time: Thu 2022-02-17 02:51:54 CST
  Universal time: Wed 2022-02-16 18:51:54 UTC
        RTC time: Wed 2022-02-16 18:51:54
       Time zone: Asia/Shanghai (CST, +0800)
     NTP enabled: n/a
NTP synchronized: no
 RTC in local TZ: no
      DST active: n/a
[root@module prometheus]# yum -y install chrony  #Install NTP
[root@module prometheus]# vim /etc/chrony.conf   #Configure clock source, Ali source I use
server  iburst
#server iburst
#server iburst
#server iburst
#server iburst
[root@module prometheus]# systemctl enable chronyd --now #Start NTP and Start Self
[root@module prometheus]# date   #View time synchronized with real machine
Wed Feb 16 18:56:20 CST 2022  

Access through browser at this time: IP:9090; Ensure prometheus is working

3. Install prometheus controlled side

The package can also be downloaded to your home directory from the above disks

[root@module ~]# tar -xf node_exporter-1.3.1.linux-amd64.tar.gz 
[root@module ~]# mv node_exporter-1.3.1.linux-amd64 /usr/local/node_exporter
[root@module ~]# vim /lib/systemd/system/node_exporter.service #Write service file



[root@module ~]# systemctl daemon-reload
[root@module ~]# systemctl enable node_exporter.service --now  #Set up the service and turn it on
[root@module ~]# ss -tunlp |grep 9100             #See if the service is being listened on
[root@module ~]# vim /usr/local/prometheus/prometheus.yml #Add Controlled End Configuration at End of Line
  - job_name: "node"
      - targets: [""]

4. Download and install grafana

[root@module ~]# wget #Download GRANAFA Package
[root@module ~]# yum -y install grafana-enterprise-8.3.6-1.x86_64.rpm #Install RPM packages
[root@module ~]# systemctl enable grafana-server.service --now        #Start the program and set the startup self-startup
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/ to /usr/lib/systemd/system/grafana-server.service.
[root@module ~]# ss -tunlp | grep grafana  #View the port and make sure the service is started
tcp    LISTEN     0      128      :::3000                 :::*                   users:(("grafana-server",pid=4300,fd=10))

Question 1: Anonymous access can also be turned on if the password cannot be reset (default does not work)

[root@module ~]# vim /etc/grafana/grafana.ini
enabled = true     #Whether to turn on anonymous login
org_role = Admin   #Use login identity: Admin represents an administrator



Question 2: If the interface shows a connection failure, check whether prometheus is started on the server side

5. Install Alertmanager

Download Address Choose Official or Shared Address

#I chose the downloaded package to transfer to the virtual machine
[root@module ~]# tar -xf 1-prometheus/alertmanager-0.23.0.linux-amd64.tar.gz -C /usr/local/  #Unzip Source Package
[root@module ~]# mv /usr/local/alertmanager-0.23.0.linux-amd64/ /usr/local/alertmanager    
#Modify directory name for easy management

[root@module ~]# vim /lib/systemd/system/alertmanager.service #Write a systemd file
Description=Alertmanager for Prometheus

ExecStart=/usr/local/alertmanager/alertmanager --config.file=/usr/local/alertmanager/alertmanager.yml --storage.path=/usr/local/alertmanager/data/
ExecStop=/bin/kill -9 $MAINPID


[root@module ~]# systemctl enable alertmanager.service --now  #Start the program and start it automatically
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/ to /usr/lib/systemd/system/alertmanager.service.

6. Configure alarm rules

Add in the rules directory. yml suffix files, prometheus will monitor and alarm according to these rule configuration files;

[root@module ~]# mkdir /usr/local/prometheus/rules

#1. Instance Survival Warning
[root@module ~]# vim /usr/local/prometheus/rules/node_alived.yml
groups:                    #A profile contains multiple groups
- name: Instance Survival Alert Rule     #Group name
  rules:                   #rule
  - alert: Instance Survival Alert     #Warning Name
    expr: up == 0          #Trigger Rule
    for: 1m                #How long does the trigger last to send a warning
    labels:                #Alert Label
      user: prometheus
      severity: warning
    annotations:           #Warning Notes
      summary: "Host Downtime !!!"
      description: "The instance host has been down for more than a minute."

#2. Memory Alarm Rules
[root@module ~]# vim /usr/local/prometheus/rules/memory_over.yml
- name: Memory Alarm Rule
  - alert: Memory Usage Alert
    expr: (1 - (node_memory_MemAvailable_bytes / (node_memory_MemTotal_bytes))) * 100 > 50
    for: 1m
      severity: warning
      summary: "Server is running out of available memory."
      description: "Memory usage has exceeded 50%(Current value:{{ $value }}%)"

#3.CPU Alarm
[root@module ~]# vim /usr/local/prometheus/rules/cpu_over.yml
- name: CPU Alarm rules
  - alert: CPU Usage Alert
    expr: 100 - (avg by (instance)(irate(node_cpu_seconds_total{mode="idle"}[1m]) )) * 100 > 50
    for: 1m
      severity: warning
      summary: "CPU Usage is soaring."
      description: "CPU Usage over 50%(Current value:{{ $value }}%)"

#4. Disk Usage Alarm
[root@module ~]# vim /usr/local/prometheus/rules/disk_over.yml
- name: Disk Usage Alarm Rules
  - alert: Disk Usage Alert
    expr: 100 - node_filesystem_free_bytes{fstype=~"xfs|ext4"} / node_filesystem_size_bytes{fstype=~"xfs|ext4"} * 100 > 80
    for: 20m
      severity: warning
      summary: "High hard disk partition usage"
      description: "Partition usage greater than 80%(Current value:{{ $value }}%)"

Hot Load Configuration: curl-X POST -/reload


7. Create a pin machine on the client side (I created it on windows)

Create a project group yourself before setting it up

8. Download pin plug-ins and modifications (using a mesh pack)

#1. Download the plug-in and place it on the server
[root@module ~]# tar -C /usr/local/ -zxf /root/prometheus-webhook-dingtalk-1.4.0.linux-amd64.tar.gz     #Unscrew Pin Plug-in Package
[root@module ding]# mv /usr/local/prometheus-webhook-dingtalk-1.4.0.linux-amd64 /usr/local/ding  #Move to installation directory for easy use
[root@module ding]# cp config.example.yml conf.yml  #Copy Template File
[root@module ding]# vim conf.yaml
    url: webhook address  #(Copy the Token that created the pin)
    secret: Encryption String

#2. Modify prometheus configuration file
[root@module ~]# vim /usr/local/prometheus/prometheus.yml
global:                #Global Configuration
  scrape_interval: 15s #Default time interval for collecting monitoring data 
  evaluation_interval: 15s #Average Interval Time
alerting:              #Alarm rules
  alertmanagers:       #
    - static_configs:
        - targets:
          -   #Server listening port
rule_files:            #Specify Rule File
  - rules/*.yml
scrape_configs:              #Monitoring Object Configuration
  - job_name: "prometheus"   #Task Name
    static_configs:          #Monitor Object Address
      - targets: [""]
  - job_name: "node"
      - targets: [""]

#3. Modify Rule File
[root@module ~]# vim /usr/local/alertmanager/alertmanager.yml 
global:                                 #Global Configuration Items
  resolve_timeout: 5m                   #Processing timeout, default 5 minutes
route:                                  #Define Routing Tree Information 
  group_by: ['alertname','instance']                     #Alarm Grouping Basis
  group_wait: 10s                       #How long do I initially wait to send a set of alert notifications
  group_interval: 10s                   #Wait time before sending a new alert
  repeat_interval: 1h                   #Cycle for sending duplicate alerts, cannot be set too low for email configuration or it will be rejected by smtp server due to too many email > deliveries
  receiver: 'webhook'                  #Name of the recipient who sent the alert
receivers:                              #Define alert recipient information
- name: 'webhook'                      #alert
  webhook_configs:                      #webhook configuration
  - send_resolved: true                 #Is it on or off
    url: ' gt alk/webhook1/send'#alert webhook address, alert information will be post ed to this address, need > To write a service to receive the alert data 
#An inhibition rule is a rule that invalidates an alert matching a set of matchers in the presence of an alert matching another set of matchers. Both alerts must have the same set of labels.
  - source_match:
      severity: 'critical'
      severity: 'warning'               #Target Alert Status
    equal: ['alertname', 'dev', 'instance']

[root@module ~]# systemctl restart alertmanager.service #Restart Service

[root@module ding]# nohup ./prometheus-webhook-dingtalk --config.file="conf.yml" 2>&1 1>dingding.log & #Start program background run exit terminal does not affect
[root@module ding]# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/null #Simulate CPU usage improvement to achieve alarm effect

Ultimately, if the test feels like waiting too long, change alertmanager text to piece repeat_interval: 60s

Topics: Linux Operation & Maintenance CentOS server