centos7 build LNMP environment - compile and install & yum install - super detailed

Posted by sumitnice@rediffmail.com on Fri, 11 Feb 2022 06:10:03 +0100

1. First understand the difference between compilation and installation and yum installation.

Install centos virtual machine under windows, which was written before. Portal~~

Compile and install:

  1. It can be installed on demand. It can be installed in whatever directory you want.
  2. Parameters can be set
  3. You can install the version you want

yum install:

  1. Convenient and fast installation
  2. There is no need to consider package dependencies
  3. You can directly use commands such as service nginx start.
2. yum installation preparations - switch Alibaba cloud yum source
# 1. Back up the original yum source
mv /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo.backup 
# 2. Download the new CentOS base Repo to / etc / yum.com repos. d/
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo 
perhaps
curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
# 3. Clean up cache
yum clean all 
# 4. Generate cache
yum makecache 

If you want to check whether the current Yum source is successfully switched, you can install something by using yum.

yum install vim

base: mirrors.aliyun.com represents the yum source address

3. Compiling and installing lnmp is not recommended, which is troublesome and easy to report errors.
  1. nginx
    1.1 check whether nginx has been installed locally

    rpm -qa | grep nginx 
    

    If it has been installed, execute the following command to uninstall the original nginx

    rpm -e nginx-*   
    

    1.2 to install nginx, you need to compile the source code downloaded from the official website. The compilation depends on the gcc environment. If there is no gcc environment, you need to install it

    yum install gcc-c++
    

    1.3 PCRE(Perl Compatible Regular Expressions) is a perl library, including perl compatible regular expression library. The http module of nginx uses pcre to parse regular expressions, so it is necessary to install pcre library on linux. pcre devel is a secondary development library developed using pcre. Nginx also needs this library. Command:

    yum install -y pcre pcre-devel
    

    1.4 zlib library provides many ways of compression and decompression. nginx uses zlib to gzip the contents of http package, so it is necessary to install zlib library on Centos.

    yum install -y zlib zlib-devel
    

    1.5 OpenSSL is a powerful secure socket layer cipher library, which includes the main cryptographic algorithms, common key and certificate encapsulation management functions and SSL protocol, and provides rich applications for testing or other purposes.
    nginx supports not only http protocol, but also https (i.e. transmitting http over ssl Protocol), so you need to install OpenSSL Library in Centos.

    yum install -y openssl openssl-devel
    

    1.6 download tar.com from the official website GZ installation package, Address~
    Mainline version: mainline version
    Stable version: stable version
    Legacy versions: old version

    # All our lnmp environments are installed in this directory
    cd /usr/local
    # download
    wget -c https://nginx.org/download/nginx-1.20.0.tar.gz
    # decompression
    tar -zxvf nginx-1.20.0.tar.gz
    cd nginx-1.20.0
    # compile
    ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/nginx
    # install
    make && make install
    # make[1]: leave the directory "/ usr/local/nginx-1.20.0" and finally show that the compilation and installation is successful!
    

    Start and stop nginx

    cd /usr/local/nginx/sbin/
    ./nginx 
    ./nginx -s stop
    ./nginx -s quit
    ./nginx -s reload
    # View ngin process
    ps aux | grep nginx
    

    Configure the service of nginx
    first
    Stop nginx service first

    killall -9 nginx
    Or use CD / usr / local / nginx / SBIN / & &/ nginx -s stop

    Then edit Service configuration file

    vim /etc/init.d/nginx

    Write the following configuration in it:

    #!/bin/sh
    #
    # nginx - this script starts and stops the nginx daemon
    #
    # chkconfig:   - 85 15
    # description:  NGINX is an HTTP(S) server, HTTP(S) reverse \
    #               proxy and IMAP/POP3 proxy server
    # processname: nginx
    # config:      /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
    # config:      /etc/sysconfig/nginx
    # pidfile:     /var/run/nginx.pid
    
    # Source function library.
    . /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
    
    # Source networking configuration.
    . /etc/sysconfig/network
    
    # Check that networking is up.
    [ "$NETWORKING" = "no" ] && exit 0
    
    # Configure the location of nginx commands
    # Modify the path of your nginx executable command, such as: / usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx
    nginx="/usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx"
    prog=$(basename $nginx)
    
    # Point to your configuration file path, such as: / usr / local / nginx / conf / nginx conf
    NGINX_CONF_FILE="/usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf"
    
    [ -f /etc/sysconfig/nginx ] && . /etc/sysconfig/nginx
    
    lockfile=/var/lock/subsys/nginx
    
    make_dirs() {
       # make required directories
       user=`$nginx -V 2>&1 | grep "configure arguments:.*--user=" | sed 's/[^*]*--user=\([^ ]*\).*/\1/g' -`
       if [ -n "$user" ]; then
          if [ -z "`grep $user /etc/passwd`" ]; then
             useradd -M -s /bin/nologin $user
          fi
          options=`$nginx -V 2>&1 | grep 'configure arguments:'`
          for opt in $options; do
              if [ `echo $opt | grep '.*-temp-path'` ]; then
                  value=`echo $opt | cut -d "=" -f 2`
                  if [ ! -d "$value" ]; then
                      # echo "creating" $value
                      mkdir -p $value && chown -R $user $value
                  fi
              fi
           done
        fi
    }
    
    start() {
        [ -x $nginx ] || exit 5
        [ -f $NGINX_CONF_FILE ] || exit 6
        make_dirs
        echo -n $"Starting $prog: "
        daemon $nginx -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE
        retval=$?
        echo
        [ $retval -eq 0 ] && touch $lockfile
        return $retval
    }
    
    stop() {
        echo -n $"Stopping $prog: "
        killproc $prog -QUIT
        retval=$?
        echo
        [ $retval -eq 0 ] && rm -f $lockfile
        return $retval
    }
    
    restart() {
        configtest || return $?
        stop
        sleep 1
        start
    }
    
    reload() {
        configtest || return $?
        echo -n $"Reloading $prog: "
        killproc $prog -HUP
        retval=$?
        echo
    }
    
    force_reload() {
        restart
    }
    
    configtest() {
      $nginx -t -c $NGINX_CONF_FILE
    }
    
    rh_status() {
        status $prog
    }
    
    rh_status_q() {
        rh_status >/dev/null 2>&1
    }
    
    case "$1" in
        start)
            rh_status_q && exit 0
            $1
            ;;
        stop)
            rh_status_q || exit 0
            $1
            ;;
        restart|configtest)
            $1
            ;;
        reload)
            rh_status_q || exit 7
            $1
            ;;
        force-reload)
            force_reload
            ;;
        status)
            rh_status
            ;;
        condrestart|try-restart)
            rh_status_q || exit 0
                ;;
        *)
            echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status|restart|condrestart|try-restart|reload|force-reload|configtest}"
            exit 2
    esac
    
    

    Then execute

    # Reload the configuration file of a service
    systemctl daemon-reload
    

    Then check the nginx status

    service nginx status
    

    I made a mistake here!! Prompt error message Can't open PID file / var / run / nginx pid (yet?) After start:, because nginx main configuration file nginx The PID path configured by the PID instruction in conf is inconsistent with the PIDFile path configured in the nginx systemd service file.
    terms of settlement:

    1. I didn't solve it with this method! Set / etc / init Remove the pidfile comment of D / nginx (corresponding to your nginx service configuration file), and modify the content to logs / nginx pid
      Or put your nginx main configuration file nginx Remove the pid comment of conf and modify the content to the pidfile of your nginx service configuration file
      In short, the two pid paths can be solved all the time.
    2. This method solves the problem of specifying nginx with the parameter nginx -c The location of the conf file. Execute the following command.

      ‚Äč1. /usr/local/nginx/sbin/nginx -c /usr/local/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
      2. systemctl daemon-reload
      3. service nginx status is correct

    If you want to access nginx outside the virtual machine, remember to turn off the firewall. centos has a variety of firewalls.

    systemctl status firewalld.service - view firewall status
    systemctl stop firewalld.service - turn off the firewall
    systemctl disable firewalld.service - set boot disable firewall
    iptables firewall shutdown!!!
    servcie iptables stop -- temporarily turn off the firewall
    chkconfig iptables off -- Permanently turn off the firewall
    service iptables status -- View firewall status

    Last step: add nginx to the environment variable

    vim /etc/profile
    Write the following code at the end
    PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/nginx/sbin
    export PATH
    Finally, execute source /etc/profile

    At this point, the compilation and installation of nginx is completed!

  2. mysql
    1.1 first uninstall the built-in MySQL

    rpm -qa | grep mariadb   View installed mariadb
    rpm -e mariadb-***       Uninstall the corresponding mariadb
    yum -y remove mari*		 uninstall yum Installation of mariadb
    
    rpm -qa |grep mysql		View installed mysql
    rpm -e mysql-***		Uninstall installed mysql
    yum remove mysql** 		uninstall yum Installation of mysql
    
    find / -name mysql
    rm -rf Corresponding documents
    

    1.2 download installation package
    First, check whether your linux is 32-bit or 64 bit?

    uname -a     # If it is a 64 bit machine, it will output x86_ sixty-four
    

    Download installation package mysql download address. To download the version with boost, the Linux generic version is directly downloaded, decompressed, and can be used after a little configuration. The installation and configuration of this version of mysql needs to be studied.

    https://cdn.mysql.com/archives/mysql-5.7/mysql-boost-5.7.33.tar.gz
    


    Then unzip it. Here are the configuration instructions of cmake. MySQL CMake parameter manual

    tar -zxvf mysql-boost-5.7.33.tar.gz
    cd ./mysql-5.7.33
    cmake -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql -DMYSQL_DATADIR=/usr/local/mysql/data -DSYSCONFDIR=/etc -DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306 -DWITH_BOOST=/usr/local/mysql-5.7.33/boost 
    make && make install
    

    1.3 after installation, execute the command

    cd /usr/local/mysql

    1.4 edit / etc / my CNF (create if not)

    [client]
    port        = 3306
    socket      = /tmp/mysql.sock
    
    [mysqld]
    port        = 3306
    socket      = /tmp/mysql.sock
    user = mysql
    
    base dir = /usr/local/mysql
    datadir = /data/mysql/data
    pid-file = /data/mysql/mysql.pid
    
    log_error = /data/mysql/mysql-error.log
    slow_query_log = 1
    long_query_time = 1
    slow_query_log_file = /data/mysql/mysql-slow.log
    
    skip-external-locking
    key_buffer_size = 32M
    max_allowed_packet = 1024M
    table_open_cache = 128
    sort_buffer_size = 768K
    net_buffer_length = 8K
    read_buffer_size = 768K
    read_rnd_buffer_size = 512K
    myisam_sort_buffer_size = 8M
    thread_cache_size = 16
    query_cache_size = 16M
    tmp_table_size = 32M
    performance_schema_max_table_instances = 1000
    
    explicit_defaults_for_timestamp = true
    #skip-networking
    max_connections = 500
    max_connect_errors = 100
    open_files_limit = 65535
    
    log_bin=mysql-bin
    binlog_format=mixed
    server_id   = 232
    expire_logs_days = 10
    early-plugin-load = ""
    
    default_storage_engine = InnoDB
    innodb_file_per_table = 1
    innodb_buffer_pool_size = 128M
    innodb_log_file_size = 32M
    innodb_log_buffer_size = 8M
    innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1
    innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 50
    
    [mysqldump]
    quick
    max_allowed_packet = 16M
    
    [mysql]
    no-auto-rehash
    
    [myisamchk]
    key_buffer_size = 32M
    sort_buffer_size = 768K
    read_buffer = 2M
    write_buffer = 2M
    

    Change the current user and group to mysql

    cd /usr/local
    chown -R mysql:mysql mysql
    

    Initialize mysql

    ./mysqld --initialize-insecure --user=mysql --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/data/mysql/data
    

    If the data directory is not created, remember to create it and perform initialization again.

    mkdir /data/mysql/data
    #Grant authority
    chmod -R 777 /data/mysql
    

    Copy executable configuration file

    cd /usr/local/mysql/support-files
    cp mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld
    

    So far, the installation is basically successful. mysql start

    service mysqld start
    

    Test connection

    cd /usr/local/mysql/bin
    ./mysql -hlocalhost -uroot -p
    

    You can connect successfully without a password
    1.5 modifying environment variables

    vim /etc/profile
    # newly added
    PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:$PATH
    # Execute after saving and exiting
    source /etc/profile
    

    Set startup and self startup

    systemctl enable mysqld
    

    Check whether the machine starts automatically

    chkconfig --list
    

    A few simple commands

    service mysqld start
    service mysqld restart
    service mysqld stop
    service mysqld status
    

    Connect mysql in the virtual machine with Navicate.

    #First, check the ip address of the virtual machine
    ifconfig
    #An error will be reported when connecting directly -- > host is not allowed to connect to this MySQL server
    #At this point, you need to enter mysql and execute the following command to connect.
    mysql -u root -p
    use mysql;
    update user set host = '%' where user = 'root';
    FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
    

    Modify MySQL password

    mysql -u root -p
    #After entering MySQL, execute directly.
    set password for root@localhost = password('root');   ##This will report an error
    #Execute the following command to find
    use mysql;
    select Host,User from user;
    #Host is no longer localhost. Because the host has been changed to% just now in order to connect with Navicat, the following command should be executed at this time
    set password for root@'%' = password('root');
    flush privileges;
    #At this time, the password of mysql is changed to root.
    
  3. Install php7 four
    3.1 first download the php installation package,

    https://www.php.net/downloads.php

    3.2 decompression, compilation and installation. I downloaded php-7.4.16 tar. gz.

    #First move the compressed package to the / usr/local directory
    mv php-7.4.16.tar.gz /usr/local
    cd /usr/local
    tar -zxvf php-7.4.16.tar.gz
    cd php-7.4.16
    

    Start compiling and installing. (there's a problem here! As long as I start – with zip when compiling, and then report an error, and this error has not been solved, I directly go to – with zip when compiling. Solve it by Baidu)

    ./configure  --prefix=/usr/local/php74 --with-config-file-path=/etc/php74 \
    --with-fpm-user=nginx \
    --with-fpm-group=nginx \
    --enable-fpm \
    --enable-opcache \
    --enable-inline-optimization \
    --disable-debug \
    --disable-rpath \
    --enable-shared \
    -enable-mysqlnd \
    --with-mysqli=mysqlnd \
    --with-pdo-mysql=mysqlnd \
    --enable-mysqlnd-compression-support \
    --with-iconv-dir \
    --with-zlib \
    --enable-xml \
    --disable-rpath \
    --enable-bcmath \
    --enable-shmop \
    --enable-sysvsem \
    --enable-inline-optimization \
    --with-curl \
    --enable-mbregex \
    --enable-mbstring \
    --enable-intl \
    --enable-ftp \
    --enable-gd \
    --enable-gd-jis-conv \
    --with-jpeg   \
    --with-freetype  \
    --with-openssl \
    --with-mhash \
    --enable-pcntl \
    --enable-sockets \
    --with-xmlrpc \
    --with-zip \
    --enable-soap \
    --with-gettext \
    --disable-fileinfo \
    --with-pear \
    --enable-maintainer-zts \
    --with-ldap=shared \
    --without-gdbm 
    

    Then execute

    make && make install
    

    Add environment variable

    vim /etc/profile
    PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/php74/bin    #My catalogue here is php74. Please don't make mistakes
    source /etc/profile
    # Execute at this time
    php -v   #You can see the php information
    

    Modify the PHP configuration file and find PHP in the previously compiled source package Ini production, copy it to / usr/local/php74 and rename it PHP ini

    cp /usr/local/php-7.4.16/php.ini-production /usr/local/php74/php.ini
    

    Modify PHP Ini to set the error message level

    vim /usr/local/php74/php.ini
    display_errors = On   //It was off
    

    Modify PHP FPM configuration file

    cd /usr/local/php74/etc
    cp php-fpm.conf.default php-fpm.conf
    vim php.fpm.conf
     Remove pid=run/php-fpm.pid Semicolon in front
    cp www.conf.default www.conf
    

    Start php

    /usr/local/php74/sbin/php-fpm
    # View process
    ps -aux | grep php
    

    Add PHP FPM to the service

    #Enter the compilation directory
    cd /usr/local/php-7.4.16/sapi/fpm
    cp init.d.php-fpm /etc/init.d/php-fpm
    #Give script executable commands and add startup and self startup
    chmod +x /etc/init.d/php-fpm
    chkconfig --add php-fpm
    chkconfig php-fpm on
    #Related commands
    service php-fpm start
    service php-fpm stop
    service php-fpm restart
    chkconfig --list   --View startup and startup items
    
4. Execute yum update to install lnmp using yum
  1. nginx
    # Install nginx library first
    rpm -Uvh http://nginx.org/packages/centos/7/noarch/RPMS/nginx-release-centos-7-0.el7.ngx.noarch.rpm
    #Install nginx using yum or up2date
    yum -y install nginx
    #start nginx 
    service nginx start  perhaps   systemctl start nginx
    service nginx stop
    service nginx status
    #After the firewall is closed, the host can directly access the virtual machine nginx through the virtual machine ip
    systemctl status firewalld.service		--- View firewall status
    systemctl stop firewalld.service    		--- Turn off the firewall
    systemctl disable firewalld.service		--- Set boot disable firewall
    #Set startup and self startup
    systemctl enable nginx   #Cancel use disable since startup
    #View startup items
    systemctl list-unit-files
    systemctl list-unit-files | grep enable
    
  2. mysql
    First, uninstall MySQL from centos
    #Uninstall mariadb
    rpm -qa | grep mariadb
    yum -y remove mari*
    rm -rf /var/lib/mysql/ * 
    rpm -qa | grep mariadb
    
    # Uninstall mysql database
    yum remove mysql-community-serve
    rpm -qa |grep mysql
    yum remove mysql-*
    find / -name mysql
    rm -rf /var/lib/mysql 
    
    Download the repo source of mysql repo source of mysql
    #I downloaded version 5.7 here
    cd /usr/local
    wget http://repo.mysql.com/mysql57-community-release-el7-8.noarch.rpm
    rpm -ivh mysql57-community-release-el7-8.noarch.rpm 
    yum -y install mysql-server 
    
    After a long installation
    #Start mysql first
    service mysqld start
    #Then check the MySQL password
    grep "password" /var/log/mysqld.log
    #Then enter mysql
    mysql -u root -p
    #Want to change the mysql password to a simpler one
    #First, change a complex password, otherwise you can't modify the MySQL password policy
    ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'lol_LOL123';
    #View current MySQL policy
    SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'validate_password%';
    #Modify strategy
    set global validate_password_policy=0;
    set global validate_password_length=1;
    #View again
    SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'validate_password%';
    #Now you can change it to a simple password
    ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'root';
    
    If you want to connect with Navicat, you need to enter the database again to modify the configuration
    #After executing the following code, the navicate outside can be connected
    use mysql;
    update user set host = '%' where user = 'root';
    FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
    
    A few simple commands
    service mysqld start
    service mysqld stop
    service mysqld restart
    service mysqld status
    #Set mysql startup self startup
    systemctl enable mysqld   #Cancel use disable since startup
    #View startup items
    systemctl list-unit-files
    systemctl list-unit-files | grep enable
    
  3. php7.4
    Installation source
     yum install epel-release
     yum install http://rpms.remirepo.net/enterprise/remi-release-7.rpm
    
    Install YUM management tool
      yum install yum-utils
    
    Install php
     yum install php74-php-gd  php74-php-pdo php74-php-mbstring php74-php-cli php74-php-fpm php74-php-mysqlnd
    
    Some commands
    #Start fpm, stop fpm, restart and view status
    service php74-php-fpm start
    service php74-php-fpm stop
    service php74-php-fpm restart
    service php74-php-fpm status
    #Set startup and self startup
    systemctl enable php74-php-fpm #Cancel use disable since startup
    #View startup items
    systemctl list-unit-files
    systemctl list-unit-files | grep enable
    
    Finally, attach the nginx configuration file in the / etc/nginx/conf.d directory
    server {
        listen       80 default_server;
        
        server_name  localhost;
        root         /usr/share/nginx/html;
    
        # Load configuration files for the default server block.
    
        location / {
            # The name of the index file defining the home page has been changed here
            index index.php index.html index.htm;
        }
    
        error_page 404 /404.html;
            location = /40x.html {
        }
    
        error_page 500 502 503 504 /50x.html;
            location = /50x.html {
        }
    
        # It's new here
        # All PHP script requests are forwarded to FastCGI for processing Use the default configuration of FastCGI protocol
        # Fastcgi server and program (PHP,Python) communication protocol
        location ~ \.php$ {
            # Set listening port
            fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
            # Set the default homepage file of nginx (it has been set above and can be deleted)
            fastcgi_index  index.php;
            # Set the path of the script file request
            fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
            # Introducing the configuration file of fastcgi
            include        fastcgi_params;
        }
    }
    
5. lnmp one click installation Reference website I don't like this way, so I haven't tested it. You can read this article

Install php7 in Centos8 (Linux) 4 and three ways to delete it

6. Some errors reported
  1. Starting nginx (via systemctl): Can't open PID file / var / run / nginx pid (yet?) after start
  2. Handling method of nginx exception "/ usr/local/nginx/logs/nginx.pid" failed (2: No such file or directory)
7. Notes
8. Reference articles
  1. Difference between source code installation and yum installation
  2. Install php7 in Centos8 (Linux) 4 and three ways to delete it
  3. Linuxyum source switch alicloud software source
  4. CentOS7 installation Nginx This article is relatively old and can be used for reference.
  5. Set nginx to system service = =, and the nginx start command is available
  6. Centos 7 systemctl and firewall firewalld commands
  7. Stopping and permanent closing of iptables firewall in centos
  8. Differences between firewalld and iptables
  9. Uninstall mysql from CentOS 7_ mysql (1) - centos7 how to completely uninstall the built-in mysql
  10. MySQL CMake parameter manual
  11. CentOS 7 source code compilation and installation mysql5 seven
  12. Add PHP FPM to the service
  13. Linux setup program starts automatically after startup (comparison of usage differences between systemctl and chkconfig commands)
  14. Uninstall mysql from CentOS 7_ mysql (1) - centos7 how to completely uninstall the built-in mysql
  15. Install MySQL 5.0 using yum or up2date seven
  16. rpm -ivh what does this ivh do
  17. Install MySQL 5.0 using yum under CentOS 7 7.20 the simplest graphic explanation
  18. Install php7 in Centos8 (Linux) 4 and three ways to delete it

Topics: Linux MySQL CentOS Nginx lnmp