ES6 Promise Usage Summary

Posted by Kev0121 on Sat, 08 Feb 2020 13:49:39 +0100

Catalog:

1, Promise overview

In short, Promise is a solution for asynchronous programming. Syntactically, Promise is an object from which messages for asynchronous operations can be obtained.

2, Benefits of using Promise

  • It can avoid the nesting problem of multiple asynchronous calls (callback hell) and improve the readability of the code.
  • promise provides a concise API to make asynchronous operations easier.

3, Promise basic usage

  • Instantiate the Promise object, pass parameters in the constructor, which is used to handle asynchronous tasks.
  • Two parameters, resolve and reject, are used to handle success and failure, and obtain the processing results through p.then.
var p = new Promise(function(resolve,reject){
	// Call resolve() on success
	// Call reject() on failure
});
p.then(function(ret){
	//Get normal results from resolve
},function(ret){}
	//Get error message from reject
));

Small case of practical operation:

 
  <script type="text/javascript">
    /*
     1. Promise Basic use
           We use new to build a constructor of promise promise to receive a parameter, which is a function, and pass in two parameters: resolve and reject, which respectively represent the callback function after the asynchronous operation succeeds and the callback function after the asynchronous operation fails
    */


    var p = new Promise(function(resolve, reject){
      //2. This is used to implement the asynchronous task setTimeout
      setTimeout(function(){
        var flag = false;
        if(flag) {
          //3. Normal conditions
          resolve('hello');
        }else{
          //4. Abnormal conditions
          reject('Error');
        }
      }, 100);
    });
    //  5 after the project instance is generated, you can use the then method to specify the callback functions of the resolved state and the reject state 
    //  In the then method, you can also return the data directly instead of the Promise object, and then you can receive the data in the later then method  
    p.then(function(data){
      console.log(data)
    },function(info){
      console.log(info)
    });
  </script>

4, Send Ajax request based on Promise

 
  <script type="text/javascript">
    /*
      Send Ajax request based on Promise
    */
    function queryData(url) {
     #   1.1 Create a Promise Example
      var p = new Promise(function(resolve, reject){
        var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
        xhr.onreadystatechange = function(){
          if(xhr.readyState != 4) return;
          if(xhr.readyState == 4 && xhr.status == 200) {
            # 1.2 Deal with normal conditions
            resolve(xhr.responseText);
          }else{
            # 1.3 Handling exceptions
            reject('Server error');
          }
        };
        xhr.open('get', url);
        xhr.send(null);
      });
      return p;
    }
    # In the then method, you can also directlyreturnData, not Promise Object, after then Data can be received in
    queryData('http://localhost:3000/data')
      .then(function(data){
        console.log(data)
        #  1.4 If you want to continue chain programming, you need to return  
        return queryData('http://localhost:3000/data1');
      })
      .then(function(data){ //Returns the result of the previous instance object
        console.log(data);
        return queryData('http://localhost:3000/data2');
      })
      .then(function(data){
        console.log(data)
      });
  </script>

5, Promise basic API

Example method

These APIs are all located in the function prototype and are instance methods, so they should be called with instances.

.then()
  • Used to get the correct result after asynchronous task execution
.catch()
  • Get exception information
.finally()
  • Success or failure will be implemented (not official standard, supported by the latest Chrome)
  
  <script type="text/javascript">
    /*
      Promise Common API instance method
    */
    // console.dir(Promise);
    function foo() {
      return new Promise(function(resolve, reject){
        setTimeout(function(){
          // resolve(123);
          reject('error');
        }, 100);
      })
    }
    // foo()
    //   .then(function(data){
    //     console.log(data)
    //   })
    //   .catch(function(data){
    //     console.log(data)
    //   })
    //   .finally(function(){
    //     console.log('finished')
    //   });

    // --------------------------
    // The two writing methods are equivalent
    foo()
      .then(function(data){
        # Get the right results for asynchronous tasks
        console.log(data)
      },function(data){
        # Get exception information
        console.log(data)
      })
      # Success or failure will be implemented (not a formal standard) 
      .finally(function(){
        console.log('finished')
      });
  </script>

Static method

.all()
  • Promise.all() processes multiple asynchronous tasks concurrently, and the results can only be obtained after all tasks are executed.
  • The Promise.all method takes an array as a parameter, and the objects (p1, p2, p3) in the array are promise instances (if not a promise, the item will be converted to a promise with Promise.resolve). Its state is determined by these three promise instances
  • The returned result is an array, and the order of the results corresponds to the order of the Promise instance object of the array.
.race()
  • Promise.all() processes multiple asynchronous tasks concurrently, and results can be obtained as long as one task is completed.

  • The Promise.race method also takes an array as an argument. When the state of an instance in p1, p2 and p3 changes (to fully or rejected), the state of p changes accordingly. And pass the return value of the first promise that changes state to the callback function of p

  • The returned result is an array, and the order of the results corresponds to the order of the Promise instance object of the array.

    ‚Äč

  <script type="text/javascript">
    /*
      Promise Common API object methods
    */
    // console.dir(Promise)
    function queryData(url) {
      return new Promise(function(resolve, reject){
        var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
        xhr.onreadystatechange = function(){
          if(xhr.readyState != 4) return;
          if(xhr.readyState == 4 && xhr.status == 200) {
            // Deal with normal conditions
            resolve(xhr.responseText);
          }else{
            // Handling exceptions
            reject('Server error');
          }
        };
        xhr.open('get', url);
        xhr.send(null);
      });
    }

    var p1 = queryData('http://localhost:3000/a1');
    var p2 = queryData('http://localhost:3000/a2');
    var p3 = queryData('http://localhost:3000/a3');
     Promise.all([p1,p2,p3]).then(function(result){
       //   The parameters [p1,p2,p3] in all correspond to the returned result one by one ["Hello Tom", "Hello Jerry", "Hello spice"]
       console.log(result) //["HELLO TOM", "HELLO JERRY", "HELLO SPIKE"]
     })
    Promise.race([p1,p2,p3]).then(function(result){
      // Because P1 executes faster, Promise's then() gets the result 'P1'. p2,p3 are still executing, but the result will be discarded.
      console.log(result) // "HELLO TOM"
    })
  </script>

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