git common commands

Posted by bobby317 on Fri, 18 Feb 2022 22:05:22 +0100

The course recommended by Wu Haiyang of wanmen university is very clear. The content of this blog is basically the content of the course.
1, Environment configuration
git configuration

// Configure user name and mailbox
git config --global "yourname"
git config --global "your@email"

//View profile
git config --list
//View a configuration
git config
//view help
git help
git help order of the day //View detailed description

git initialization

// initialization
git init
//Create folder and initialize
git init file name
//View all files in the folder
ls -la file name

git tracking

//View git status
git status
//Add files to staging area
git add file name
//Add all files
git add .

git undo tracking

//Withdraw the file from the staging area and cancel tracking
git rm --cached File name (multiple file names can be written)

git submit to local warehouse

//After commit, the version number is generated and saved
git commit
git commit -m Submit information
//Do add and commit at the same time, but only take effect for the tracked files
git commit -am

2, Version tracking
log tracking of git

//Command parameters can be combined
git log
//View the difference between the last two submissions
git log -p -2
git log --author=""
//View branch diagram
git log --graph
git log --pretty=oneline //The printed information is complete
//Custom print format,% h represents hash value,% an represents author,% ar represents time, and% s represents description.
git log --pretty=format: "%h - %an, %ar : %s"

git tracks the difference between before and after file modification

//Before git commit, check whether there is a problem with the current version. If there is no problem, you can submit it directly
git diff //You can specify a file name. By default, it shows the changes of all files
//If the file has been added to the temporary storage area, you cannot use git diff to directly view the difference. You need to add the staged parameter.
git diff --staged 

git file deletion, renaming and moving

//To delete, you can delete the original file and add again, which is equivalent to git deletion
git rm filename
git mv oldname newname
//Move, move is essentially to delete the old and create a new one
git mv filename route/file name

git file ignored

//Yes Add the file name to gitignore
//Ignore node_ All files under the modules file
//Ignore different files and wrap lines
//Ignore log end file

//Delete tracked files
//Empty folders will not be found and will be prompted not to be tracked. Empty files will be prompted not to be tracked
//Bring out all the files in the cache and Add files to gitignore, and then add commit push.
git rm -r --cached .

3, Restore changes
git one click Restore

//Local modification, not add ed yet
//Discard local changes
git checkout -- filename

//The newly created file has not been tracked and cannot be restored with checkout. You can delete it directly
rm -rf filename

git undo tracking and one click Restore

//Files that have been added to the cache
//reset to the last operation of this file
git reset HEAD filename
//Return to the status of not add ed, abandon the local modification, and return to the previous status
git checkout --filename

git version fallback

//Forced fallback
git reset --hard HEAD^		//Fallback to previous version
git reset --hard HEAD^^		//Back to previous version
git reset --hard HEAD of hash number		//Fallback to the specified hash version
git reflog	//	View the change of pointer

git back to the old version
Version fallback: the future version is deleted and cannot be returned to the future
Back to the old version: pull a certain version from the past to the present, and keep all the existing versions

git log
git checkout hash number -- filename
git checkout hash number -- .	//Restore all files to the previous version and commit again

4, Branch merge
When the current branch is not processed, the content of other branches will not be changed.
Switch branches when the current branch is working tree clean

git new switch delete branch

git branch //View branch
git branch name //New branch
git checkout branch_name //Switch branch
git checkout -b branch_name	//Create and switch branches
git branch -d name	//To delete a branch, you need to switch to another branch first
git branch -D name 	//Forcibly delete branches. Unconsolidated branches cannot be deleted with - D, but can be forcibly deleted with - D

//After a branch is deleted by mistake, it can be retrieved as long as there is the hash number of the branch
git branch Branch name hash number

git merge branch
First switch to the main branch, and then git merge the branches to be merged

git merge branch_name
git merge --no-ff --no-commit branch_name	//Do not submit after merging. Submit after the test is OK, -no-ff do not need to switch to the fast mode. You can see all versions
git merge --no-ff --squash branch_name	//--No FF and -- squash cannot be used at the same time
git merge --squash branch_name	//Compress branches and commit after compression
git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD	//Back to the original version

git conflict resolution

git merge --abort	//Abandon merge

< < < < < < < indicates the current branch
=======Indicates separation
>>>>>>>Represents the branch to be merged

git view the version line diagram through the command

git log
git log --oneline
git log --oneline --graph
git log --oneline --graph --all	//View all branches
git log --oneline --graph -number	//View recent versions of the line graph

git fast rotation mechanism
When the previous version is the same as this version, it is not necessary to keep the two same versions. Use the fast rotation mechanism to erase the previous version directly

git merge branch_name --no-ff	//Fast rotation mechanism is not used

git deletes all unwanted branches at once

git branch --merged	//Show all merged content
git branch --no-merged	//Show all unmerged content
git branch --merged | egrep -v "(^\*|master|develop)"|xargs git branch -d	//In parentheses are the branches to keep
git branch --no-merged | egrep -v "(^\*|master|develop)"|xargs git branch -D	//In parentheses are the branches to be retained. Delete the unconsolidated branches with capital D

5, github usage

Push git local warehouse to remote warehouse

git init	//Generate local warehouse 
git add .
git commit -m "message"
git remote add origin Remote web address	//After setting, use origin to replace the remote URL
git push --set-upstream origin master	//Connection required for first submission
git push -u origin master 	//Abbreviation of the last command

git main warehouse as server

1,The project name is
2,Remove the original connection
git remote remove origin
3,Establish a new connection
git remote add origin Remote web address

git get remote project
Do not download the zip file and then use git init, which will cause all branch information to be lost.

git clone Remote warehouse address item name (optional)//Clone the remote warehouse and automatically check out to the master
//Add the item name parameter to rename the item
git clone --no-checkout	//Clone, but do not automatically check ou to the master
git clone --bare Remote warehouse address	//Clone a naked warehouse, only git file
 If you need to obtain the following code
git clone Naked warehouse address item name

6, git multi person collaborative development

git push

git push
git push -u origin
git push --set-upstream origin branch_name	//The first upload should correspond to the remote branch, and then you can directly use git push
git push --all	//All branches are uploaded at one time
git branch -a	//You can view remote trace branches

git pull

git pull = git fetch + git merge //git pull before work 
git fetech
git merge
gitr pull After pulling a remote branch that does not exist locally, there is only the remote tracking branch of the branch locally, but there is no such branch,
Not at this time checkout Tracing a branch to the far end generates a split head pointer. If you want to checkout Can directly
git checkout The corresponding remote branch name will be automatically created locally.

git Delete remote branch, warehouse migration

git push origin --delete branch_name	//Delete remote branch and remote tracking branch
git remote set-url origin New address of remote warehouse	//After the warehouse is migrated and the new address is set, git push --all can be used.

git demo

developer A Create warehouse and upload
	git init //Initialize local warehouse
	code .gitignore //Open with vs code gitignore file
	git add .
	git commit -m 'first commit'
	git remote add origin Remote warehouse name
	git push -u origin master
developer B Pull project and develop
	git clone --bare Remote warehouse address
	git clone --no-checkout Naked warehouse address item name
	rm -rf Bare warehouse
	git checkout master
	git checkout -b developB	//Create your own branch and develop
	code .
	git add .
	git commit -m 'developB'
	git checkout master 
	git merge --no-ff developB
	git log --oneline --graph
	git remote set-url Remote warehouse address
	git remote -v
	git push --all
developer A Develop
	git pull
	git checkout -b developA
	code .
	git add .
	git commit -m 'developA'
	git checkout master 
	git merge developA
	git push	//Only the master is pushed. If you need to push others, you can git push --all or switch to other branches, GIT push origin developepa

7, git server deployment

git uses ssh to connect to github

cd ~	//Switch to default folder
ls -la
ssh-keygen 	//Generate public and private keys
cat	//Open the public key and put it on the server
ssh	//Connect to github server

git is automatically deployed to alicloud server

1,Submit project to github
2,use github of actions Automatically deploy, select according to language and function CI,Deploy with rsync The plug-in implements the function of automatic deployment to the server. Parameter in settings--secrets Add in.
3,Generate public and private keys
ssh-keygen -t rsa -C auto -f deployment
//Customize the generation, add the description, give the project name, and finally generate the deployment and deployment pub
 Add private key to github of secrets In the variable
 Add private key to local ssh In the folder
cd .ssh/
cp ~/deployment .
Add the public key to the default folder of the remote server
scp user name@Public network ip: .
4,Connect to remote server
ssh root@Public network ip address	//Local connection server
 Write public key to.ssh Folder authorized_keys In the file
 Press dd Delete original content
cat >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
5,Initiate automatic deployment
 go back to github,click start commit. 

8, gitlab usage


Private warehouse free of charge, operation and github identical

fork use

It is used for collaboration among multiple developers, or the addition and testing of new functions of the project
fork Modify in your own warehouse
 Then launch merge request

CI and CD

Continuous Intergration	//unit testing 
Continuous Delivery	//
Continuous Deployment	//
Continuous integration, continuous delivery, continuous integration

gitlab runner

The installation tutorial is conducted according to the official website
gitlab-runner --version	//Check whether the installation is successful

gitlab CI/CD

establish .gitlab-ci.yml
 function CI/CD Pipelines

Topics: git github GitLab