[PyTorch] 2. Preliminary application of PyTorch

Posted by jmajeremy on Fri, 19 Nov 2021 08:26:06 +0100

2.1 build a neural network using pytoch

Learning objectives:

  • Master the basic process of constructing neural network with Pytorch
  • Master the implementation process of constructing neural network with Pytorch

About torch.nn:

  • Use Pytorch to build neural networks. The main tools are in torch.nn package
  • nn relies on autograd to define the model and derive it automatically

Typical process of constructing neural network

  • A neural network with scientific parameters is defined
  • Traversal training data set
  • Process the input data to flow into the neural network
  • Calculate loss value
  • The gradient of network parameters is back propagated
  • Update the weight of the network with certain rules

Define a neural network implemented by PyTorch

CNN on the fifth floor

import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F

#Define a simple network class
class Net(nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        """
        Five layer neural network
        """
        super(Net,self).__init__()
        #Define the first layer convolution neural network, input channel dimension = 1, output channel dimension = 6, convolution kernel size 3 * 3
        self.conv1=nn.Conv2d(1,6,3)
        #Define the second layer convolution neural network, input channel dimension = 6, output channel dimension = 16, convolution kernel size 3 * 3
        self.conv2=nn.Conv2d(6,16,3)
        #Define a three-tier fully connected network
        self.fc1=nn.Linear(16*6*6,120)
        self.fc2=nn.Linear(120,84)
        self.fc3=nn.Linear(84,10)

    def forward(self,x):
        """
        :param x:
        :return:
        """
        #Execute the maximum pool operation in the pool window of (2, 2)
        x=F.max_pool2d(F.relu(self.conv1(x)),(2,2))#Throw into the first convolution layer - "relu" - Pool 2 * 2 pool
        x=F.max_pool2d(F.relu(self.conv2(x)),2)    #Throw into the second convolution layer - "relu -" pooling
        x=x.view(-1,self.num_flat_features(x))
        #Set the tensor of three dimensions to two dimensions
        x=F.relu(self.fc1(x))
        x=F.relu(self.fc2(x))
        x=self.fc3(x)
        return x

    def num_flat_features(self,x):
        """
        :param x:The tensor after convolution x´╝îCalculate its size,x It's a three-dimensional tensor. Take out the last two dimensions
        eg: (2,3,4) Return 3*4=12
        :return:
        """
        #Calculate size, except batch on dimension 0_ size
        size=x.size()[1:]
        num_features=1
        for s in size:
            num_features*=s
        return num_features

net=Net()
print("the structure of net:",net)
#output
the structure of net: Net(
  (conv1): Conv2d(1, 6, kernel_size=(3, 3), stride=(1, 1))
  (conv2): Conv2d(6, 16, kernel_size=(3, 3), stride=(1, 1))
  (fc1): Linear(in_features=576, out_features=120, bias=True)
  (fc2): Linear(in_features=120, out_features=84, bias=True)
  (fc3): Linear(in_features=84, out_features=10, bias=True)
)

Obtain all trainable parameters in the model

net.parameters()

params=list(net.parameters())
print("len of params:",len(params))
print(params[0].size())
print(params[0])
#output
len of params: 10
torch.Size([6, 1, 3, 3])
Parameter containing:
......

Suppose the input size of the image is 32 * 32

input=torch.randn(1,1,32,32)
out=net(input)
print(out)
#output
tensor([[ 4.0471e-02,  8.6946e-02, -1.8538e-02,  5.5225e-02, -9.2332e-02,
          3.0920e-02, -1.9139e-04, -2.0026e-01, -4.5713e-02,  2.6573e-02]],
       grad_fn=<AddmmBackward0>)

With the output tensor, gradient zeroing and back propagation operations can be performed

be careful:

  • The neural network constructed by torch.nn only supports the input of mini batches, not a single sample
  • For example, nn.Conv2d needs a 4D Tensor in the shape of (nSamples,nChannels,Height,Width). If the number is only but the nature is the same, you need to execute input.unsqueeze(0) to actively expand the 3D Tensor into a 4D Tensor

loss function

  • The input of the loss function is an input pair (output,target), and then a value is calculated to evaluate the gap between output and target
  • There are several different loss functions available in torch.nn. For example, nn.mselos calculates the mean square deviation loss to evaluate the gap between the input and the target value
  • An example of calculating loss using nn.mselos
input=torch.randn(1,1,32,32)
output=net(input)
target=torch.randn(10)

#Change the shape of the target to a two-dimensional tensor to match the output
target=target.view(1,-1)
criterion=nn.MSELoss()
loss=criterion(output,target)
print(loss)

The direction propagation chain of the neural network

input->conv2d->relu->maxpool2d
->conv2d->relu->maxpool2d
->view->linear->relu->linear->relu->linear
->MSELoss
->loss

When loss.backward() is called, the whole calculation chart will automatically derive loss, and all attributes require_ Tensors with grad = true will participate in the operation of gradient derivation and accumulate the gradient into the. Grad attribute in tensors

output=net(input)
target=torch.randn(10)

#Change the shape of the target to a two-dimensional tensor to match the output
target=target.view(1,-1)
criterion=nn.MSELoss()
loss=criterion(output,target)
print(loss)
print(loss.grad_fn)
print(loss.grad_fn.next_functions[0][0])
print(loss.grad_fn.next_functions[0][0].next_functions[0][0])
#output
tensor(0.6516, grad_fn=<MseLossBackward0>)
<MseLossBackward0 object at 0x0000021826CEEE88>
<AddmmBackward0 object at 0x00000218117E8908>
<AccumulateGrad object at 0x0000021826CEEE88>

Back propagation

  • It is very easy to perform back propagation in PyTorch. The whole operation is loss.backward()
  • Before performing back propagation, the gradient must be cleared first, otherwise the gradient will be accumulated between different batch data
  • Execute a back propagation demo
# Code for performing gradient zeroing in Pytorch
net.zero_grad()

print('conv1.bias.grad before backward')
print(net.conv1.bias.grad)

#Code that performs back propagation in Python
loss.backward()

print("conv1.bias.grad after backward")
print(net.conv1.bias.grad)

Update to parameter

  • The simplest algorithm for updating parameters is SGD random gradient descent
  • The specific algorithm formula is: weight = weight learning_ rate*gradient
  • First, SGD is implemented with traditional Python code as follows:
#SGD is implemented using traditional Python code
learning_rate=0.01
for f in net.parameters():
    f.data.sub_(f.grad.data*learning_rate)
  • Use the standard code officially recommended by PyTorch as follows:
#First, import the optimizer package. optim contains several common optimization algorithms, such as SGD,Adam, etc
import torch.optim as optim

#Creating optimizer objects through optim
optimizer=optim.SGD(net.parameters(),lr=0.01)
#The optimizer performs a gradient zeroing operation
optimizer.zero_grad()
output=net(input)
loss=criterion(output,target)

#Perform a back propagation operation on the loss value
loss.backward()
#The update of parameters is performed through a line of standard code
optimizer.step()
print("DONE")

Subsection summary

Learn the typical process of building a neural network
  • A neural network with learnable parameters is defined
  • Traversal training data set
  • Neural network for processing input data
  • Calculate loss value
  • The gradient of network parameters is back propagated
  • Update the weight of the network with certain rules
Definition of learning loss function
  • In the previous demo, we used torch. NN. Mselos () to calculate the mean square error
  • When performing back propagation calculation through loss.backward(), the whole calculation graph will automatically derive loss, and all attributes are required_ Tensors with grad = true will participate in the operation of gradient derivation and accumulate the gradient into the. Grad attribute in tensors
Learn the calculation method of back propagation
  • It is very easy to perform back propagation in pytoch. The whole operation is loss.backward()
  • Before performing back propagation, clear the gradient first, otherwise the gradient will be accumulated between different batches of data
net.zero_grad()
loss.backward()
Updating method of learning parameters
  • Define an optimizer to perform parameter optimization and updating
    optimizer=optim.SGD(net.parameters(),lr=0.01)
  • Specific parameter updates are performed through the optimizer
    optimizer.step()

Topics: Python Pycharm neural networks Pytorch Deep Learning